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apoptosis

Cannabidiol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells

The main chemical component of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have antitumor properties. The present study examined the in vitro effects of CBD on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. We found that CBD significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGC-7901 cells. These results indicated that CBD could induce G0-G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by increasing ROS production, leading to the inhibition of SGC-7901 cell proliferation, thereby suggesting that CBD may have therapeutic effects on gastric cancer.

The post Cannabidiol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells appeared first on Weed World Magazine.

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Cannabidiol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells

Abstract

The main chemical component of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have antitumor properties. The present study examined the in vitro effects of CBD on human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. We found that CBD significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of SGC-7901 cells. Further investigation showed that CBD significantly upregulated ataxia telangiectasia-mutated gene (ATM) and p53 protein expression and downregulated p21 protein expression in SGC-7901 cells, which subsequently inhibited the levels of CDK2 and cyclin E, thereby resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G0-G1 phase. In addition, CBD significantly increased Bax expression levels, decreased Bcl-2 expression levels and mitochondrial membrane potential, and then upregulated the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, thereby inducing apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells. Finally, we found that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased after CBD treatment. These results indicated that CBD could induce G0-G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by increasing ROS production, leading to the inhibition of SGC-7901 cell proliferation, thereby suggesting that CBD may have therapeutic effects on gastric cancer.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 31349651   DOI: 10.3390/biom9080302

Source:Pubmed

 

Zhang X1Qin Y1Pan Z1Li M1Liu X1Chen X1Qu G2Zhou L3Xu M3Zheng Q4Li D5.

The post Cannabidiol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer SGC-7901 Cells appeared first on Weed World Magazine.

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23 and Me

Using genetic raw data and technology to support paths to remission: Innovations in complementary cancer care

Each person is born with a set of genes inherited and recombined into a unique blueprint or map. The expression of those genes is not just dependent on inheritance but how the genes interact with the outside environment (epigenetics). In other…

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Each person is born with a set of genes inherited and recombined into a unique blueprint or map. The expression of those genes is not just dependent on inheritance but how the genes interact with the outside environment (epigenetics). In other words, genes are not static. One can have oncogene mutations, but never develop cancer. In fact, 40% of people with BRCA positive gene mutations do not. Using genomic information to predict the development of a disease process such as cancer is tricky due to the complexity of our immune system.

However, we can use genomic data to look at factors affecting the ability of the body to:

  • Seek and find pre-cancerous and cancerous cells
  • Undergo apoptosis
  • Undergo DNA and cell cycle repair processes

Most conventional oncology genetic testing looks at specific oncogenes associated with cancer development such as the BRCA I and II mutations in breast and gynecological cancers, JAK2 mutations in myeloproliferative disorders, KRAS in pancreatic cancer, and APC in colon cancer. While these are important and specific treatment have been created accordingly, the power of a properly functioning immune system is often overlooked.

Data containing over 3,400 genes is readily available from 23 and Me, and Ancestry. Using complex, analytical software, such as OPUS23 which interfaces in real time to peer reviewed research, raw data can be assessed, and reports generated. Genes vital to processes that promote cancer prevention and remission can be analyzed for potential function and epigenetic affecters. This technology is being used to guide more personalized treatment plans for cancer patients. Resulting assessments provide information on the effects of environmental toxins, medication, supplements, nutrients from food, mind body therapies and general dietary recommendations for genes and mutations. Once suggestions are implemented, clinicians can monitor DNA oxidative damage, glutathione and Natural Killer Cell activity. We look for these values to improve as a result of specific changes to lifestyle, supplementation and diet.

Here are some examples to help with our understanding of how a report would be generated. Three of the most important genes clinicians assess in all cancer patients are interferon gamma, p53 and AKT. We’ll look at why they are important and how the data specifically relates to nutrients that might be recommended by a report. Comprehensive reports include other useful information as mentioned above.

Affecting the Body’s Immune Surveillance System: Natural Killer Cells and Interferon gamma

Natural Killer (NK) cells play an essential role in the surveillance of pre-cancerous and cancer cells. They act to phagocytose dysplastic cells and to produce cytokines which activate other cells, like

CD8 cells that further mount anti-tumor responses. Interferon gamma (IFN) is associated with anti proliferative, pro apoptotic and anti-tumor mechanisms. IFN is also associated with tumor surveillance by NK cells and downregulation of cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors. IFN mediated responses are positively associated with patient survival in several cancers.

Nutrient supporting proper INF gamma production and activity include: Theophylline found in cocoa beans, and black tea, Myrcene found in bay, and hops, Gingerol found in ginger, L-arginine found in sesame, wild rice, soybean, walnuts, chickpea, peanut, and mung beans, Cinnamon, and Beta cryptoxanthin which is found in Papaya, mango, peaches, oranges, tangerines, bell peppers, watermelon.

Safe-Guards to Damage: Apoptosis

There are several processes the body uses to prevent and correct damaged cells, damaged DNA, and damaged protein. One of these essential processes is called apoptosis. Apoptosis is defined as programmed cell death and occurs when a cell/DNA is damaged. It is an extremely important way of self-elimination for pre-cancerous cells and is highly regulated. There are genes that promote apoptosis like p53 and genes that suppress apoptosis like AKT, also known as survival factors. Proper functioning of apoptosis depends on genetic mutations, environmental factors, nutritional status and is affected by medications as well.

AKT1 (PI3K) – Alpha serine/threonine protein kinase is a survival factor which regulates apoptosis. It acts to turn off other proteins associated with proper apoptosis. Over activation (i.e. suppression of apoptosis) can over stimulate cells and result in abnormal cells proliferation = oncogenesis. Abnormalities are common in cancer: gastric, ovary, pancreatic, colorectal, breast and prostate. There are five alleles where mutations can occur. If mutations are significant enough, patients can have over or under activity.

This gene and its product, according to peer reviewed studies, can be affected by nutrition. Mutations resulting in over activity suppress apoptosis and may increase the risk of pre-cancerous and cancerous cells. In these circumstances, nutritional antagonists are appropriate. N-acetyl cysteine and theanine fall under this category. N-acetyl cysteine is found in Brussel sprouts, lentils, oatmeal, sunflower seeds, red peppers, garlic, onions. Theanine is found in green and black tea; nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, and soy/tempeh.

Surveillance of the Cell Cycle: p53

Most cells in our body undergo division process called mitosis. A cell grows, its DNA is exactly replicated in preparation for cellular division. What was once one cell, becomes two and the process starts again. I’ve used two sentences to describe cell division, but it is anything that simplistic. There is a massive amount of control and check points involved because one mistake can cause a normal cell to be converted to a pre-cancerous or cancer cell (aka immortal cells, aka undifferentiated cells). The cell cycle check points search for size, DNA replication, fidelity, nutrients, chromosome spindle attachment and DNA damage to name a few significant essential processed that must be executed correctly. If minor mistakes are made the cell does have the ability to correct them via repair enzymes or activation of a process called apoptosis (aka cell programmed death). Functioning of cell cycle surveillance for mistakes, repair enzymes, and apoptosis is vital to the prevention of cancer development.

All along the way nutrients from food and possibly supplements serve as coenzymes and cofactors to help this process run correctly. For example, magnesium is essential in DNA replication fidelity, Vitamin B12 is necessary for DNA replication and antioxidants such as Vitamin C and E are necessary for chromosomal damage. Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals can cause an increase in cell cycle mistakes.

P53 is a gene that produces a protein known as the guardian of the genome. It is the most common gene mutation found in about 50% of all cancers. P53 is a type of tumor suppressor gene that encodes for a protein that inhibits the development and growth of tumors. The main function is to repair DNA in order to prevent altered DNA. When the DNA damage is too extensive to be repaired, P53 protein signals cells to undergo apoptosis. Nutrients that act as agonists of P53 include lemons and those in the mint family.

I mentioned Myrcene above relating to agonistic activity on IFN gamma expression and Natural Killer cell activity. Myrcene is also found in Cannabis and is the most abundant monoterpene in the plant, therefore Cannabis is a great source of this component. Recall that IFN gamma is a cytokine that triggers a cellular response to viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, but also has important immunoregulatory functions. Its activation potentiates anti- tumor effect of cells including Natural Killer cells. This at a genetic level is of importance to cancer prevention.

In summary, genomic analysis can be a powerful tool in creating personalized diet and lifestyle plans in complementary cancer care. Raw data acquisition is relatively simple, and because of the availability of instruments like OPUS23 we can generate more accurate plans for our patients which can be measured with laboratory tests such as DNA oxidative damage, glutathione and Natural Killer cell profiles. I recommend that all cancer patients consider using these tools.

About OPUS23 software

Rather than just looking at the function of a handful of pre-determined SNPs without any associated research (and no way of knowing why the report chooses one form of the SNP to be listed as the risk over another form), Opus23 is a learning tool which allows the user multiple ways of visualizing the raw data of (currently) over 3,400 hand-curated SNPs by expert editors, most of which contain additional information and research by the editors about the SNP and gene, allowing the doctor to create user-defined reports tailored specifically to the patient’s presenting problems as well as creating custom templates for favorite scenarios or using templates produced by colleagues using the program. A multi-function cross-platform search enables the user to find relevance in complex algorithms, tissue-based activity of potentially compromised enzymes, protein-protein interactome, metabolic pathways with imputed gene function level, ClinVar and GWAS databases, all based on peer-reviewed studies and under constant editorial review. A tailored protocol can be curated for any of the current list of 3,426 genes influenced by 1,112 agents as reported in 2,192 hand-curated PubMed citations of interactions between genes and natural agents, classified by type of study (human, animal or in vitro). A new development which will be launched as soon as the labs make it available is the ability to upload other test data such as organic acid test results and view the interaction with the DNA raw data. This innovation, especially being linked to scientific studies is a powerful tool. 

Dr. Lisa A. Price, ND is a licensed clinician specializing in complementary cancer care and culinary nutrition, National Institute of Health Research Fellow, and author of three books (Demos Health Inc., and adjunct faculty at Bastyr University. She is a certified expert curator of OPUS23 software.

 

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apoptosis

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma (nbl) is one of the most common solid cancers in children. Prognosis in advanced nbl is still poor despite aggressive multimodality therapy. Furthermore, survivors experience severe long-term multi-organ sequelae. Hence, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of utmost importance. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been used for years in folk medicine and later in the field of palliative care. Recently, they were found to show pharmacologic activity in cancer, including cytostatic, apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects.

The post In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma appeared first on Weed World Magazine.

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In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Neuroblastoma (nbl) is one of the most common solid cancers in children. Prognosis in advanced nbl is still poor despite aggressive multimodality therapy. Furthermore, survivors experience severe long-term multi-organ sequelae. Hence, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of utmost importance. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been used for years in folk medicine and later in the field of palliative care. Recently, they were found to show pharmacologic activity in cancer, including cytostatic, apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects.

METHODS:

We investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the anti-nbl effect of the most active compounds in Cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (thc) and cannabidiol (cbd). We set out to experimentally determine the effects of those compounds on viability, invasiveness, cell cycle distribution, and programmed cell death in human nbl SK-N-SH cells.

RESULTS:

Both compounds have antitumourigenic activity in vitro and impeded the growth of tumour xenografts in vivo. Of the two cannabinoids tested, cbd was the more active. Treatment with cbd reduced the viability and invasiveness of treated tumour cells in vitro and induced apoptosis (as demonstrated by morphology changes, sub-G1 cell accumulation, and annexin V assay). Moreover, cbd elicited an increase in activated caspase 3 in treated cells and tumour xenografts.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results demonstrate the antitumourigenic action of cbd on nbl cells. Because cbd is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid that appears to be devoid of side effects, our results support its exploitation as an effective anticancer drug in the management of nbl.

 

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Source:Pubmed

 

 

PMID: 27022310 PMCID: PMC4791143 DOI: 10.3747/co.23.2893

 

 

Fisher T1Golan H2Schiby G3PriChen S4Smoum R5Moshe I1Peshes-Yaloz N6Castiel A6Waldman D2Gallily R7Mechoulam R5Toren A8.

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Alternative Medicine

Chamomile and Cannabis Oil for Cancer

Did you know cancer is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths in the United States? Or that cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S?

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Did you know cancer is responsible for 1 in 4 deaths in the United States? Or that cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S?  In 2015 alone, there were 8.8 million deaths globally attributed to cancer.

Cancer is one of the biggest health crises we’re facing today. Affecting women, men, young, and the old – cancer impacts millions of lives around the globe.  Conventional treatments for cancer today include radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery. These treatments are expensive, though, not to mention risky. Studies show that chemo and radiation can cause secondary cancers.

Yet, research also indicates herbs play an integral role in fighting cancer. In fact, both chamomile and cannabis exhibit cancer-fighting properties. Unlike chemotherapy or radiation, these natural herbs pose minimal risk or side effects.  Which begs the question, could chamomile in combination with cannabis help kill cancer? After all, both of these herbs are anticarcinogens. Could there be a link by combining the two? Science seems to say yes.

Here’s what you need to know about chamomile and cannabis oil for cancer.

Chamomile fights cancer

Chamomile is an ancient herb. The first uses of chamomile date back over 5,000 years ago. Chamomile was used for treating numerous ailments such as:

Today, evidence indicates chamomile also displays potent anti-cancer properties.  A study published in 2007 examined the effects of chamomile extracts on cancerous cells. During the course of the study, chamomile extracts were tested on healthy human cells and cancerous cells. The researchers found that the extracts caused minimal growth inhibitory on healthy cells but a remarkable reduction in cancerous cells. In fact, the chamomile extracts facilitated apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells but not in normal cells.  This is incredible when we consider current cancer treatments like chemotherapy kill healthy cells. Not to mention lead to the development of secondary cancers.

Another study in 2015 also concluded chamomile’s potent anti-cancer properties. Researchers found that thirty years of consumption of chamomile significantly reduced the risk of thyroid cancer and benign thyroid disease by 80%. While chamomile certainly isn’t the only factor in the onset or treatment of cancer, other factors such as lifestyle and diet do come into play; the medicinal value of chamomile in treating cancer is evident.

Cannabis kills cancer cells

Like chamomile, cannabis also exhibits anti-cancer properties. Scientific evidence shows that when cannabinoids enter the body, they cause cancerous cells to commit suicide (apoptosis) without harming healthy cells.  A 2007 Harvard study published in the American Association for Cancer Research found that the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (aka THC) cuts the growth of tumors in half. In addition, the study also revealed cannabis inhibited cancer’s ability to spread.  While it’s important to mention this study was conducted on animal subjects rather than humans, this isn’t the first study to show that cannabis fights cancer.

A study published in Plus One revealed that another cannabinoid in cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), could induce cancer cell death while preventing further cancerous growth. The findings suggested CBD causes a decrease in the expression of a group of proteins associated with the spread of cancerous cells.  The researchers from the study even concluded, “As CBD is a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid that appears to be devoid of side effects, our results support its exploitation as an effective anti-cancer drug in the management of gliomas.”

A study in 2015 once again confirmed cannabis’ cancer-fighting capabilities. The researchers found that when cannabinoid receptors in the body are stimulated, programmed cell death occurs in cancerous cells.  The evidence is imminent; cannabis plays an important role in the treatment of cancer.

The link between chamomile and cannabis oil

Cannabis and chamomile are anticarcinogens. Much of the research up until this point though has studied these herbs in isolation.  Which begs the question – is there any therapeutic value to using a combination of the two? Patient testimonials indicate yes.

A cancer patient in Mexico was given just three months to live after going through surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation for terminal metastatic secondary bone cancer. She had already gone through chemo and radiation for breast cancer four years prior.  Having exhausted all conventional treatment options, she looked for natural relief. The patient began administering a treatment of chamomile-infused cannabis oil (FECO) via suppositories and ingested capsules.  Today, she no longer needs her pain meds and has been able to sleep for the first time in months.

Terpene Bisabolol and the Entourage Effect

Curious why chamomile and cannabis may work better together?  It is likely due to the interaction of terpenes and cannabinoids. Terpenes are what give cannabis strains their distinct aromas. It is also believed terpenes play a role in cannabis’ effects.  Like cannabinoids, terpenes interact with cannabinoid receptors in the human body.

Terpenes are not only found in cannabis, though. Terpenes are also present in a variety of plants, including chamomile. In fact, the terpene bisabolol is produced by both chamomile and cannabis.  Why is this important?  The compounds in cannabis (such as terpenes and cannabinoids) work synergistically together. This phenomenon is known as the entourage effect. It is why eating mangos before consuming cannabis can increase the psychoactive effects. Mangos contain one of the same terpenes as cannabis, myrcene. If a mango is eaten before consuming cannabis, myrcene will bind to cannabinoid receptors in the body, in turn enhancing the effects of cannabis.

Just like the myrcene in mangos can enhance cannabis’ effects, the bisabolol in chamomile is likely to do similarly. Because chamomile and cannabis contain cancer-fighting properties, combining the two may enhance each herb’s capabilities. Which helps explain why using chamomile and cannabis oil may be a powerful intervention for treating cancer.

Clearly, the need for more research is imminent. We have only scratched the surface when it comes to our understanding of the therapeutic potential of cannabis. However, the positive impact for patients is clear. Cannabis saves lives.

Share this article if you believe cancer patients should have access to safe cannabis medicine.

 

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